In the early modern period, the most virulent pandemics struck Europe, including Italy, in 1575-77, 1630-33, and 1656-57.  Mortality rates were grim: Venice and its surrounding area, for example, lost more than 65% of its population during the plague of 1630, which in Milan eradicated almost 50% of the city's inhabitants. In the 1657 pandemic Naples suffered a population loss of approximately 60%.  In comparison, during the same outbreak Rome fared relatively well, losing only about 17% of her population. Although the last significant Italian outbreak occurred in Messina, Sicily, in 1743, the cities, towns, and villages of the peninsula would remain under its fearful shadow for years to come, continuing to implore the heavens for protection, hope, and healing.